Variable Details

Available Studies

MAP, MARS, Clinical Core, LATC


Not Scaled

Variable Type 


Variable Name 




Perceived discrimination
Self-reported frequency of discrimination

Perceived discrimination is assessed with a 9 items based on a previously established scale. The scale assesses the subjective experience of being treated unfairly in common everyday situations. Items are framed in the context of general mistreatment without reference to race, age, or gender.

Participants are asked to rate how often they experienced nine instances of discrimination on a 4-point scale (see table below). Responses are then dichotomized (often or sometimes = 1 and rarely or never = 0) and summed across all items for each participant. The total score ranges from 0 to 9, with higher scores indicating more discrimination.

Participants are presented the following items:

  1. You are treated with less courtesy than other people.
  2. You are treated with less respect than other people.
  3. You receive poorer service than other people at restaurants or stores.
  4. People act as if they think you are not smart.
  5. People act as if they are afraid of you.
  6. People act as if they think you are dishonest.
  7. People act as if they’re better than you are.
  8. You or your family members are called names or insulted.
  9. You are threatened or harassed.

Response choices for each item:

Response Response code Calculated value
Often 1 1
Sometimes 2 1
Rarely 3 0
Never 4 0

Note: In preliminary analysis, the Cronback coefficient alpha, an indicator of internal consistency reliability, was 0.8.

This variable is available in the following format for each study:

MARS - longitudinal
MAP - baseline only
ROS - not available