Variable Details

Available Studies

MAP, MARS, Clinical Core, LATC


Not Scaled

Variable Type 


Variable Name 




Perceived social isolation (loneliness)

Loneliness, or emotional isolation, refers to perceived social isolation and feeling disconnected from others. This variable is assessed at each evaluation with 5 items from a modified version of the de Jong-Gierveld Loneliness Scale. The original version of the scale has been shown to be internally consistent and associations with loss of a spouse, institutional living, and low self-esteem support its construct validity. To assess emotional loneliness, 5 items assessing social loneliness were eliminated from the original scale.

Participants are asked to rate agreement with each item on a 5-point Likert rating scale (see table below). The total score ranges from 1 to 5 and is the average of the individual item scores. Higher values indicate more loneliness.

Participants are presented the following items:

  1. I experience a general sense of emptiness.
  2. I miss having people around.
  3. I feel like I don’t have enough friends.
  4. I often feel abandoned.
  5. I miss having a really close friend.

Response choices for each item:

Value Response
1 Strongly disagree
2 Disagree
3 Neutral
4 Agree
5 Strongly agree