Variable Details

Available Studies

ROS, MAP, MARS, Clinical Core


Not Scaled

Variable Type 


Variable Name 




Overall well-being
Overall well-being - Average of 18 items

Well-being is assessed with a modified 18 item version of Ryff’s Scales of Psychological Well Being. The scale includes 3 items for each of 6 aspects of well-being: self-acceptance, autonomy, environmental mastery, purpose in life, positive relations with others, and personal growth.

Participants are asked to rate how each item applies to themselves using a 7-point Likert rating scale (see below). Items that are positively worded are flipped so that higher ratings on all individual items indicate greater well-being. The total score is the mean of the ratings, with a higher score relating to greater well-being.

Participants are presented the following items:

Item no. Item Flipped (f)
1 Maintaining close relationships has been difficult and frustrating for me.
2 People would describe me as a giving person, willing to share my time with others. (f)
3 I have not experienced many warm and trusting relationships with others.
4 I like most parts of my personality. (f)
5 When I look at the story of my life, I am pleased with how things have turned out so far. (f)
6 In many ways I feel disappointed about my achievements in life.
7 I tend to be influenced by people with strong opinions.
8 I have confidence in my own opinions, even if they are different from those of others. (f)
9 I judge myself by what I think is important, not by the values of others. (f)
10 For me, life has been a continuous process of learning, changing, and growing. (f)
11 I think it is important to have new experiences that challenge how I think about myself and the world. (f)
12 I gave up trying to make big improvements or changes in my life a long time ago.
13 The demands of everyday life often get me down.
14 In general, I feel I am in charge of the situation in which I live. (f)
15 I am good at managing the responsibilities of daily life. (f)
16 Some people wander aimlessly through life, but I am not one of them. (f)
17 I live life one day at a time and don’t really think about the future.
18 I sometimes feel as if I’ve done all there is to do in life.

Response choices for each item:

Response Value Flipped value
Strongly agree 1 7
Agree 2 6
Slightly agree 3 5
Neither agree nor disagree 4 4
Slightly disagree 5 3
Disagree 6 2
Strongly disagree 7 1