Variable Details

Available Studies

ROS, MAP, MARS, Clinical Core


Not Scaled

Variable Type 


Variable Name 




Well-being: Autonomy
Well-being component: Autonomy - Average of 3 items

Autonomy is measured using 3 questions from a modified version of Ryff’s Scales of Psychological Well-Being. The scale includes 3 items for each of 6 aspects of well-being: self-acceptance, autonomy, environmental mastery, purpose in life, positive relations with others, and personal growth.

Participants are asked to rate how each item applies to themselves using a 7-point Likert rating scale (see below). Items that are positively worded are flipped so that higher ratings on all individual items indicate greater autonomy. The score is the mean of the 3 item ratings, with a higher score relating to greater autonomy.

Participants are presented the following items:

Item no. Item Flipped (f)
1 I tend to be influenced by people with strong opinions.
2 I have confidence in my own opinions, even if they are different from those of others. (f)
3 I judge myself by what I think is important, not by the values of others. (f)

Response choices for each item:

Response Value Flipped value
Strongly agree 1 7
Agree 2 6
Slightly agree 3 5
Neither agree nor disagree 4 4
Slightly disagree 5 3
Disagree 6 2
Strongly disagree 7 1