Variable Details

Available Studies

ROS, MAP, MARS, Clinical Core


Not Scaled

Variable Type 


Variable Name 




Well-being: Growth
Well-being component: Growth - Average of 3 items

Personal growth is measured using 3 items from a modified version of Ryff’s Scales of Psychological Well-Being. The scale includes 3 items for each of 6 aspects of well-being: self-acceptance, autonomy, environmental mastery, purpose in life, positive relations with others, and personal growth.

Participants are asked to rate how each item applies to themselves using a 7-point Likert rating scale (see below). Items that are positively worded are flipped so that higher ratings on all individual items indicate greater personal growth. The score is the mean of the 3 item ratings, with a higher score relating to greater personal growth.

Participants are presented the following items:

Item no. Item Flipped (f)
1 For me, life has been a continuous process of learning, changing, and growing. (f)
2 I think it is important to have new experiences that challenge how I think about myself and the world. (f)
3 I gave up trying to make big improvements or changes in my life a long time ago.

Response choices for each item:

Response Value Flipped value
Strongly agree 1 7
Agree 2 6
Slightly agree 3 5
Neither agree nor disagree 4 4
Slightly disagree 5 3
Disagree 6 2
Strongly disagree 7 1