Variable Details

Available Studies

ROS, MAP, MARS, Clinical Core, LATC


Not Scaled

Variable Type 


Variable Name 




Depressive symptoms
Measure of depressive symptoms (Modified CESD)

Depressive symptoms are assessed with a modified, 10-item version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (CES-D)*. Participants are asked whether or not they experienced each of ten symptoms much of the time in the past week. The score is the total number of symptoms experienced. Items 4 and 7 are reverse coded so the response is consistent with depressive symptom =1.

Participants are presented with the following items:

Item no. Item Calc Item no. in 20-item CES-D*
1 I felt depressed. Yes=1 6
2 I felt that everything I did was an effort. Yes=1 7
3 My sleep was restless. Yes=1 11
4 I was happy. No=1 12
5 I felt lonely. Yes=1 14
6 People were unfriendly. Yes=1 15
7 I enjoyed life. No=1 16
8 I felt sad. Yes=1 18
9 I felt that people disliked me. Yes=1 19
10 I could not get going. Yes=1 20

Note on missing data: The score is rescaled to be out of 10 by averaging the non-missing item values and multiplying by 10. For example, if only 8 questions are answered, and the sum is 6, then 6/8 = 0.75, multiplied by 10 results in a score of 7.5. This is only done if less than 5 items are missing.

*Reference for full 20-item CES-D: Radloff LS: The CES-D Scale: a self-report depression scale for research in the general population. Applied Psychological Measurement 1:385-401, 1977.