Variable Details

Available Studies

ROS, MAP, MARS, Clinical Core, LATC

Scaled? 

Not Scaled

Variable Type 

Longitudinal

Variable Name 

cesdsum

Categories

Depression

Depressive symptoms
Measure of depressive symptoms (Modified CESD)

Depressive symptoms are assessed with a modified, 10-item version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (CES-D)*. Participants are asked whether or not they experienced each of ten symptoms much of the time in the past week. The score is the total number of symptoms experienced. Items 4 and 7 are reverse coded so the response is consistent with depressive symptom =1.

Participants are presented with the following items:

Item no. Item Calc Item no. in 20-item CES-D*
1 I felt depressed. Yes=1 6
2 I felt that everything I did was an effort. Yes=1 7
3 My sleep was restless. Yes=1 11
4 I was happy. No=1 12
5 I felt lonely. Yes=1 14
6 People were unfriendly. Yes=1 15
7 I enjoyed life. No=1 16
8 I felt sad. Yes=1 18
9 I felt that people disliked me. Yes=1 19
10 I could not get going. Yes=1 20

Note on missing data: The score is rescaled to be out of 10 by averaging the non-missing item values and multiplying by 10. For example, if only 8 questions are answered, and the sum is 6, then 6/8 = 0.75, multiplied by 10 results in a score of 7.5. This is only done if less than 5 items are missing.

*Reference for full 20-item CES-D: Radloff LS: The CES-D Scale: a self-report depression scale for research in the general population. Applied Psychological Measurement 1:385-401, 1977.


Publications