Variable Details

Available Studies

ROS, MAP, MARS, Clinical Core


Not Scaled

Variable Type 


Variable Name 




Eudaimonic well-being
Well-being subscale: Eudaimonic - Average of 9 items

The eudaimonic approach to well-being focuses on the pursuit of self-fulfillment and self-realization. The eudaimonic subscale is measured using 9 items from a modified version of Ryff’s Scales of Psychological Well-Being. The questions relate to positive relations with others, purpose in life, and personal growth.

Participants are asked to rate how each item applies to themselves using a 7-point Likert rating scale (see below). Items that are positively worded are flipped so that higher ratings on all individual items indicate greater eudaimonic well-being. The subscale score is the mean of the item ratings, with a higher score relating to greater eudaimonic well-being.

Participants are presented the following items:

Item no. Item Flipped (f)
1 Maintaining close relationships has been difficult and frustrating for me.
2 People would describe me as a giving person, willing to share my time with others. (f)
3 I have not experienced many warm and trusting relationships with others.
4 For me, life has been a continuous process of learning, changing, and growing. (f)
5 I think it is important to have new experiences that challenge how I think about myself and the world. (f)
6 I gave up trying to make big improvements or changes in my life a long time ago,
7 Some people wander aimlessly through life, but I am not one of them. (f)
8 I live life one day at a time and don’t really think about the future.
9 I sometimes feel as if I’ve done all there is to do in life.

Response choices for each item:

Response Value Flipped rating
Strongly agree 1 7
Agree 2 6
Slightly agree 3 5
Neither agree nor disagree 4 4
Slightly disagree 5 3
Disagree 6 2
Strongly disagree 7 1