Variable Details

Available Studies

ROS, MAP, MARS, Clinical Core


Not Scaled

Variable Type 


Variable Name 




Hedonic well-being
Well-being subscale: Hedonic - Average of 9 items

The hedonic approach to well-being focuses on the notion that experiencing pleasure and generally avoiding pain leads to happiness. The hedonic subscale is measured using 9 items from a modified version of Ryff’s Scales of Psychological Well-Being. The questions relate to self-acceptance, autonomy, and environmental mastery.

Participants are asked to rate how each item applies to themselves using a 7-point Likert rating scale (see below). Items that are positively worded are flipped so that higher ratings on all individual items indicate greater hedonic well-being. The subscale score is the mean of the item ratings, with a higher score relating to greater hedonic well-being.

Participants are presented the following items:

Item no. Item Flipped (f)
1 I like most parts of my personality. (f)
2 When I look at the story of my life, I am pleased with how things have turned out so far. (f)
3 In many ways I feel disappointed about my achievements in life.
4 I tend to be influenced by people with strong opinions.
5 I have confidence in my own opinions, even if they are different from those of others. (f)
6 I judge myself by what I think is important, not by the values of others. (f)
7 The demands of everyday life often get me down.
8 In general, I feel I am in charge of the situation in which I live. (f)
9 I am good at managing the responsibilities of daily life. (f)

Response choices for each item:

Response Value Flipped rating
Strongly agree 1 7
Agree 2 6
Slightly agree 3 5
Neither agree nor disagree 4 4
Slightly disagree 5 3
Disagree 6 2
Strongly disagree 7 1