Variable Details

Available Studies

ROS, MAP, MARS, Clinical Core


Not Scaled

Variable Type 


Variable Name 




Time horizon
Perceived time horizon - Average of 6 items

Perceived time horizon is measured with 6 items.

Participants are asked to rate how each item applies to themselves using a 7-point Likert rating scale (see below). Items that are positively worded are flipped so that higher ratings on all items indicate a longer perceived time horizon. The total score is the mean of the item ratings, with a higher score indicating a longer perceived time horizon.

Participants are presented the following items:

Item no. Item Flipped (f)
1 Many opportunities await me in the future. (f)
2 I expect that I will set new goals in the future. (f)
3 I have the sense that time is running out.
4 I can do anything I want in the future. (f)
5 There are limited possibilities in my future.
6 As I get older, I experience time as more limited.

Response choices for each item:

Response Value Flipped value
Strongly agree 1 7
Agree 2 6
Slightly agree 3 5
Neither agree nor disagree 4 4
Slightly disagree 5 3
Disagree 6 2
Strongly disagree 7 1

Collected once: ROS and AACORE
Longitudinal: MAP and MARS