Variable Details

Available Studies

MAP, MARS

Scaled? 

Not Scaled

Variable Type 

Longitudinal

Variable Name 

berlin_risk_class

Categories

Sleep and Circadian Rhythms

Risk of sleep apnea
Risk of sleep apnea, high vs. low (Berlin Questionnaire)

This variable is only available in MAP and MARS.

Risk of sleep apnea is measured using the Berlin Questionnaire. Questions are related to snoring and daytime sleepiness.

Participants are asked the following questions:

  1. How often do you feel really rested when you wake up in the morning?
    Never, Rarely, Sometimes, Often, Very often
  2. During the past month, how often have you felt tired or fatigued after your sleep?
    Not at all, Less than once a week, Once or twice a week, Three or four times a week, Nearly every day
  3. In the past month, during your waking time, how often have you felt tired, fatigued, or not up to par?
    Not at all, Less than once a week, Once or twice a week, Three or four times a week, Nearly every day
  4. How often do you get so sleepy during the day or evening that you have to take a nap?
    Never, Rarely, Sometimes, Often, Very often
  5. Have you ever nodded off or fallen asleep while driving a vehicle?
    Yes, No
  6. Over the past month, how often has this (question #5) occurred?
    Not at all, Less than once a week, Once or twice a week, Three or four times a week, Nearly every day
  7. Do you snore?
    Yes, No
  8. Has your snoring ever bothered other people?
    Yes, No
  9. If you snore, would you say your snoring is…?
    Slightly louder than breathing, As loud as talking, Louder than talking, Very loud - can be heard in adjacent rooms
  10. Over the past month, how often have you been snoring?
    Not at all, Less than once a week, Once or twice a week, Three or four times a week, Nearly every day
  11. During the past month, how often have others noticed that you quit breathing or have long pauses between breaths during sleep?
    Not at all, Less than once a week, Once or twice a week, Three or four times a week, Nearly every day
  12. A BMI measure of 30 or more and history of high blood pressure are obtained from the interview and counted in the scoring.

The total score for risk of sleep apnea is expressed as high or low risk, based on the sum of the following composite scores calculated from the items above: snoring, daytime sleepiness, and physiological risk factors.


Publications